|c.13-15 billion years ago||Estimated Origin of this Universe|
|c.2551 BCE||Building of the Great Pyramid (also known as Pyramid of Cheops/Khufu) at Giza, Egypt|
|480 BCE||Battle of Thermopylae between the Persian Empire of Xerxes I and an alliance of the Greek city-states|
|220-206 BCE||Building of Great Wall of China by China’s first Emperor, on the site of older defences|
|33||Crucifixion of Jesus Christ|
|476||Fall of the Roman Empire in the West – when the last emperor, Romulus Augustus, was forced to abdicate by the German chieftain Odoacer. (Various other dates are also cited for the Roman Empire’s slow decline)|
|622||Muhammad’s Flight to Mecca (the Hegira)|
|1066||Norman invasion of England|
|1348||Black Death (plague) in Europe|
|1453||Fall of Constantinople, the last redoubt of the Byzantine or Eastern Roman Empire, to the Turks|
|1492||Voyage of Christopher Columbus to what later became known as the American continent|
|1517||Martin Luther’s 95 Theses at Wittenberg, Germany, launching the Protestant Reformation|
|1520||Death of Montezuma (also given as Moctezuma, Motecuhzoma), presaging defeat of the Aztec Empire by Spain|
|1688||Exile of James II and start of the ‘Glorious Revolution’ in Britain|
|1776||United States Declaration of Independence from Britain|
|1815||Battle of Waterloo, when Napoleon, returning from exile in Elba, was defeated by the coalition armies of Britain, Prussia and other European allies|
|1868||The Meiji Restoration in Japan, ending the Tokugawa era|
|1914||Start of World War I|
|1939||Start of World War II|
|1945||Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan|
|1947||Independence of India and Pakistan from the British Empire|
|1969||First Man on Moon|
|Note: the science fiction guru Arthur C. Clarke once remarked that: ‘Apollo [the American lunar programme] may be the only achievement by which our age is remembered a thousand years from now’. Yet how many today remember this date?|
|11/9/2001||European-style dating of the American ‘9/11’ Destruction of New York’s Twin Towers by al-Qaeda|
Penelope J. Corfield is a historian, lecturer and education consultant. She currently serves as the President of the International Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies (ISECS).
Click on the different category headings to find out more. You can also change some of your preferences. Note that blocking some types of cookies may impact your experience on our websites and the services we are able to offer.
These cookies are strictly necessary to provide you with services available through our website and to use some of its features.
We provide you with a list of stored cookies on your computer in our domain so you can check what we stored. Due to security reasons we are not able to show or modify cookies from other domains. You can check these in your browser security settings.
These cookies collect information that is used either in aggregate form to help us understand how our website is being used or how effective our marketing campaigns are, or to help us customize our website and application for you in order to enhance your experience.
If you do not want that we track your visit to our site you can disable tracking in your browser here:
We also use different external services like Google Webfonts, Google Maps, and external Video providers. Since these providers may collect personal data like your IP address we allow you to block them here. Please be aware that this might heavily reduce the functionality and appearance of our site. Changes will take effect once you reload the page.
Google Webfont Settings:
Google Map Settings:
Google reCaptcha Settings:
Vimeo and Youtube video embeds:
The following cookies are also needed - You can choose if you want to allow them: